Cell potency – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Safe Alternatives for Brightening Skin
Studies have shown that we can control the process by influencing various steps along the pathway. Perhaps the best-studied step involves that of the tyrosinase enzyme. For years, scientists have been looking for ways to regulate this enzyme and therefore, slow melanin formation. One can regulate tyrosinase by either slowing down its activity or competing for its substrates, either Tyrosine in step one (see Figure 1) or L-DOPA in step two. An example of a mechanism that controls tyrosinase activity would be the use of rice extract – the phytic acid found in rice binds the copper metal ion, slowing down step two of the tyrosinase mediated reaction. Kojic acid, Aspergillus (a fungus) ferment, Rumex extract, and ergothioneine (a plant amino acid) are other examples of tyrosinase inhibitors that chelate or bind copper. Newer ingredients, such as hydroxycinnamic acid, gluconic acid, and zinc glycinate also chelate copper to control tyrosinase activity. Of particular interest is zinc glycinate, which stimulates synthesis of an antioxidant protein called mettallothionein that binds the copper stopping step two in the pathway. In addition it has been shown to reduce tyrosinase synthesis and activity, as well as suppress melanocyte growth factors that stimulatemelanin synthesis. 

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